The Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FASFA, is a federal financial assistance program for college and graduate students. It was developed by the U.S. Department of Education to enable more students to afford higher education. The program gives federal funds to millions of students each year. This aid comes in the form of federal loans and grants. The FAFSA application is free to fill out and submit. Students must reapply each year that they are in school to continue to get benefits.
The main FAFSA eligibility requirement is having a high school diploma, General Education Development (GED) certificate or homeschool equivalent. The easiest way to apply for FAFSA is online. Applicants must share information about their dependency status and income as well as information about their parents’ income if they are considered a “dependent student.” Eligible students are then awarded financial aid packages which may include FAFSA grants, loans and/or a work-study program, among others.
What is FAFSA?
Thousands of students and parents each year ask, “What is FAFSA?” FAFSA was created under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 by the Department of Education. Essentially, it is the official form used to apply for federal financial aid for higher education. FAFSA is managed by the division of Federal Student Aid (FSA) and helps millions of college students every year afford education by granting them financial aid packages.
The financial aid application must be updated and resubmitted every year that the applicant student is in school and desires federal assistance. There are federal, state and college deadlines each year for turning in the application. The federal deadline for the 2021–22 school year and for 2022-2023 is June. States and individual schools, however, have their own deadlines for students to apply for FAFSA. Applications usually become available in October. The form takes roughly 30 minutes to complete and is shared with all schools that are listed on the application.
Federal student aid is disbursed on a first-come, first-served basis. So, students who apply earlier may receive more benefits, as there is a limited amount of funding available for financial aid each year.
What are the requirements for FAFSA?
There are several eligibility requirements for FAFSA. However, they are minimal so more students can be eligible for benefits. The primary FAFSA requirement is that a student must be qualified to obtain higher education at a college or career school. Students qualify by having a high school diploma, General Education Development (GED) certificate or completing a valid homeschooling program. In addition, prospective federal student aid recipients must be enrolled in an eligible degree or certificate program and maintain satisfactory progress during their time in the program.
Male applicants must be registered with the Selective Service Reserve when they are filling out the financial aid application. All applicants must have a Social Security Number (SSN) unless they are from the Republic of Palau, Federated State of Micronesia or the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The following statements must be signed before the FAFSA application is submitted:
- Federal loan aid will only be used for educational purposes.
- There are no defaults on federal student loans or refunds owed on federal grants.
Applicants must be legal residents of the U.S. but do not have to be citizens. U.S. nationals and permanent residents with green cards may qualify. Students who have the following documents are eligible to apply for FAFSA:
- Permanent Resident Card.
- Resident Alien Card.
- Alien Registration Receipt Card.
- Arrival-departure record.
- Battered immigrant status.
Citizens of Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the Republic of Palau may qualify for only certain types of federal student aid.
Learn About the FAFSA Application
Every year, new and prospective college students wonder “how do you apply for FAFSA?” Students and parents can apply for FAFSA online. There is even a secure app available for both Google Play and the App Store to complete the application.
Applicants also have the option to complete a paper FAFSA form. A PDF of the application can be found online and printed out or be requested by phone. Paper applications must be mailed in to be processed. Both parents and students can fill out sections of the FAFSA application. Both can also create separate account logins to enter their information.
There are many sections to the application whether prospective recipients are filling it out online or on paper. First are the demographics sections. This section asks for data like the student’s name, Social Security Number and birthday. Following demographics is the section where a student lists every school he or she is considering, even if he or she has not yet applied or been accepted.
Next is a very important section regarding dependency. Dependency is determined by how much parents support the student financially such as giving shelter, food and clothing. Essentially, it is who files federal taxes for the household every year. In many homes of young students, it is the parents. The FAFSA asks a series of questions to determine the dependency status of the student.
Students deemed dependent can then pass the online form onto their parents to fill out. Because every family situation is unique, it is important to check who the FSA qualifies as a parent or guardian in order to obtain the correct IRS information.
For households with dependent students, parents must complete their own demographics sections in addition to their income and tax information. In order to receive the correct amount of financial aid, students and parents must submit accurate tax and income information.
The last section of the FAFSA application is signing. This verifies that all information entered is correct and accurate and that the applicant is finished. Online applications do notify students and parents, however, if any information is missing or inconsistent before submitting. Individuals applying on paper will have to proofread their applications on their own.
How much money can I get from FAFSA?
A popular question is “how much money can students get from FAFSA?” The amount of aid that students can receive depends on several factors. The federal student aid program does not focus on low-income students alone. Every individual’s situation is taken into consideration holistically. While financial need is one of the factors that the FSA examines, the following are also determinants of aid:
- The cost of attendance.
- Amount of aid available from the school.
- Whether the school is in the state or out of state.
- Expected amount of private scholarships.
- Expected Family Contribution (EFC).
- Enrollment status.
Students eligible for the Free Application for Federal Student Aid can receive three types of aid: grants, loans and participation in a work-study program. FAFSA grants are often called “gift aid” as it is assistance that does not have to be paid back. This type of financial assistance is need-based, and thus reserved for low-income students.
The FAFSA work-study program is available to beneficiaries who also have financial needs. Not all schools participate in work-study but those that do help students find part-time jobs that are related to their field of study or in civic education. Income earned from work-study should be used toward living and day-to-day expenses rather than tuition.
There are two different FAFSA loans available for students: loans directly from the Department of Education and loans from the school. They can be subsidized or unsubsidized by the government. Subsidized federal student aid is available for low-income undergraduate applicants.
For subsidized loans, the U.S. Department of Education pays the interest on this loan during deferment, 6 months after graduation and while in school. Unsubsidized loans are available for undergraduate and graduate students. However, the Department of Education does not take responsibility for unsubsidized FAFSA loan interest.
Do you have to pay back FAFSA?
Individuals awarded aid from FAFSA question: “do you have to pay back FAFSA?” The answer depends on the type of aid you are asking about. Typically, students are only required to pay back loans. FAFSA grants and funds earned through work-study by qualifying students do not have to be repaid.
However, students have several months post-graduation to begin making payments on their FAFSA loans. Borrowers can choose from repayment plan options that best suit their income and needs.
Student loans are managed by third-party loan servicers approved by the FSA. Individuals are contacted by their loan servicer when they first accept their loans but information about all federal student aid is available on their FSA accounts.